This week's new entry to the Anime Companion Supplement is something any urban dweller or experienced traveler is likely to have used. Train schedules.
This falls into the: "not seen in anime and manga often but important in real life" category.
Of course it also falls into the: "Gilles wanted to write about this" category.
In any case I present you with:
jikoku-hyō (timetable) 時刻表
By the way, my main two sources of information were articles in JRTR Japan Railway & Transport Review, a magazine that has all of the issues online in PDF format for easy downloading.